Words and phrases like IQ, IQ chart, IQ score and IQ range are in common use; but are they clearly understood and do you know the difference between all of these? Let’s start by understanding the measurement of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) to comprehend the difference between IQ range, chart and score.
Understanding Intelligence Quotient
What is intelligence?
There are many different kinds of intelligences, each connoting a different ability of the mind; however, when collectively speaking, intelligence is the mind’s ability to comprehend a situation, to deal with that situation, to derive conclusions from the situation and the ability to draw the solution from a problem existing in the situation.
Every human is different from the other based on various characteristic differences. One of these is the capability of his brain. To be right placed in groups of matching intelligence levels, psychologists have been looking for ways of aptly measuring this intelligence of the human mind. This led to the development of intelligence quotient and the IQ range.
The intelligence quotient is a score, measured in numbers, which is yielded after administering certain approved intelligence tests to the participants. These scores are then tallied with the intelligence quotient scale as devised by Wechsler or Lewis Terman, the originators of intelligent quotient scale, after which the intelligence level of the individual is determined.
Surprisingly, on both scales, the score of 100 denotes average intelligence for a particular age. So, the average score or the mean intelligence quotient for both scales is 100. This score then gradually decreases on both sides of the scale on which one end connotes mentally impaired, retarded individuals, while the score on the opposite end suggests an unusually gifted or genius individual.
The intelligence scale starts somewhere from 36-40 and goes up till 160-164, with 100 coming in the center as mentioned earlier. The intelligence chart or graph visually interprets these scores making a bell-shaped curved graph and is mostly compatible for individuals of all ages when they are tested with the appropriate tests. By observing this intelligence chart or graph one is able to make out the IQ range showing the different intelligence levels. Let’s look at these ranges in detail to understand where each individual is placed after being tested with the intelligence tests.
With the mean score coming in the center of the graph, the spread of the rest of the scores is equal on both sides creating a normal distribution curve. So, about 2/3 of the total scores collected will fall within the first standard deviation from the mean creating the range of most individuals sharing almost the same intelligence level. Around 95% of the total scores collected will make up 2 standard deviations from the center.
Over the past many decades, various classifications of IQ range have been introduced. Lewis Terman’s classification of the IQ came first and is as follows,
· Score of 140 and Above
Individuals in this range are classified as genius or near genius.
· Score Between 120 and 140
Individuals in this range are classified as having very superior levels of intelligence.
· Score Between 110 and 120
People who are grouped in this range are classified as having superior form of intelligence.
· Score Between 90 and 110
Individuals here said to have normal or average level of intelligence amongst their age mates.
· Score Between 80 and 90
In this group, the individuals are considered as having a dull mind.
· Score Between 70 and 80
Individuals in this category have borderline deficiency of intelligence.
· Score Below 70
According to this classification, individuals are definitely feeble-minded.
Now let’s take a look at the IQ range as classified by Wechsler later on.
· Score of 128 and Above
Individuals have very superior intelligence
· Score Between 120 and 127
People in this group have superior intelligence.
· Score Between 111 and 119
Individuals in this category are normally bright.
· Score Between 91 and 110
Individuals have average intelligence
· Score Between 80 and 90
Individuals are classified as dull normal.
· Score Between 66 and 79
People here have borderline deficiency.
· Score Below 65
People have defective intelligence levels.
Earlier on there was a fine classification of mental deficiency which is now obsolete and individuals below an IQ score of 70 are just considered mentally retarded.
A. Earlier Classification
a. 70 to 80: borderline deficiency
b. 50 to 69: moron
c. 20 to 49: Imbecile
d. 20 or Below: Idiot
B. Current Classification
a. 50 to 69: Mild
b. 35 to 49: Moderate
c. 20 to 34: Severe
d. 20 or Below: Profound